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tree identification oregon

The clumps need to be thinned to the one good stem if maple sawlogs are the goal. There are 30 species of coniferous trees and 37 species of broadleaf trees that are native to Oregon. Even so, the incense-cedar in Oregon is composed of fragrant wood that is resistant to insects and decay. These forests are now very susceptible to insects and fire. Climate General cultivation is limited to areas with mild winters, as these trees are frequently killed by temperatures below −13 °F. The bigleaf maple has the largest leaves of all the maples, hence the name. A Mature Pacific silver firs typically reaches 100 to 230 feet in height and up to 45 inches in diameter. The Pacific yew can be readily recognized from its lookalike, the western hemlock, by its more orderly needle arrangement, but it’s the bark of the Pacific yew that is truly amazing. Long ago, some Native Americans used the inner bark for treating colds and fevers and used the needles in tea. Understory Best growth appears to be in areas that receive between 30 and 49 inches of precipitation annually. The needles are known for being stinky when crushed. It is the largest mountain oak in the West. Western larch is usually found growing with other coniferous trees including Douglas-fir, grand fir and ponderosa pine on moist, mountainous slopes near streams throughout British Columbia down through northern central and northeastern Oregon. Plants are hardy and can withstand winters to 0°F and can be found in elevations up to 8,000 feet with high annual precipitation. In the more arid portions of the state east of the Cascade Range, tree species such as ponderosa pine are more common. It is also used for paper and is a fine timber species as it is quite strong for its weight. Engelmann spruce is shade-tolerant and consequently will establish itself under other forest types such as aspen or lodgepole pine. White fir is often attacked by a variety of insects and diseases. Needles are 2 to 4 inches long and grow in clusters of five. Over 700 species of aromatic, oily, trees or shrubs. Subalpine fir has a very distinctive crown that is slender and spire-like. What Tree Is That? A combination of slow growth, shade intolerance, limited market value and the encroachment of coniferous forests into valley woodlands has heightened the importance of Oregon white oak savannas and woodland management. Management Character Look for flaky bark to identify a mature pine tree. Fire kills the above-ground portion of the shrub, but it resprouts fairly readily after fire, and in fact American Indians in California and Oregon used fire to encourage hazelnut growth. The adaptable vine maple is common throughout western Oregon, and is probably best identified by its trunk, which in the darker understory of forests branches out into several vine-like tendrils… Subalpine fir is a middle- to upper-elevation mountain conifer. %PDF-1.7 %���� Climate White fir is found in areas characterized by a moderately humid climate with long winters with heavy snowfall. As a result they tend to be smaller than their southern neighbors. The Pacific silver fir is popular among landscapers because its silver leaves and bark and deep purple cones provide a regal combination. The insect puts a sucking tube into the bark to obtain food and at the same time injects a toxin that kills trees under heavy attack. As a result, uneven-aged forestry is often practiced, typically with group selection as the harvest technique. For optimal results, bitter cherry should be propagated from seed, but can also be propagated from softwood stem or root cuttings. Management Roughly 30 species are native in some part of the state, making Oregon second only to California as the state with the most na-tive conifer species. The wood from the Engelmann spruce is of very good quality, light in weight and straight-grained with a yellowish color. Climate Management Early growth of sugar pine is slow compared with that of ponderosa pine, but growth rates accelerate with age and are sustained for longer periods of time than those of associated species. Identifying species of locust trees can be done by features such as their … Leaves are oblong to oval with small teeth and rounded tips. On warmer sites you’ll find an understory of huckleberry oak, red huckleberry, pygmy Oregon grape, and box-leaved silk-tassel. In Oregon, you might hear its nut described as a filbert, which is correct. Needles are feathery and flat. Protecting our water source As a smaller, tree, Oregon ash is often an understory tree species itself. The historic range of Willamette valley ponderosa pine has been reduced significantly by agriculture and development, but it is also capable of growing on the full range of Valley soils below 1,000 feet elevation. Its leaves or needles are 2 to 3 inches long, silvery-blue to silvery-green. The clumps need to be thinned to the one good stem if madrone sawlogs are the goal. Range It is typically cultivated as an ornamental tree in temperate climates of Oregon because it is more tolerant of dry and hot conditions than most conifers. Management The African conifer Canyon live oak is considered a non-manageable hardwood; however, its rapid sprout growth make it an excellent source of fuel wood. It is not unusual to find charcoal on the bark of older trees indicating that they survived many fires. Range Male flowers, known as catkins, produce pollen in the early spring. Management The name of the incense-cedar is a bit of a misnomer, because it is in fact not a true cedar. Both food and shelter for wildlife endstream endobj 389 0 obj <>>>/MarkInfo<>/Metadata 96 0 R/Outlines 146 0 R/Pages 386 0 R/StructTreeRoot 147 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 390 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 7/Tabs/S/Thumb 90 0 R/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 391 0 obj <>stream Quaking aspens can be identified by their smooth, white bark marked by black scars where lower branches have been “self-pruned." The purpose of this site is to help you identify common conifers and broadleaves in the Pacific Northwest. A very fast-growing hybrid of black cottonwood and eastern cottonwood is grown in plantations in Oregon for pulp, lumber and biomass. They grow best in deep soil on slopes facing the sea. Nearly 99 percent of the nation's filbert crop is produced in Oregon and often marketed as hazelnuts, to avoid confusion. The bark has a distinctive reddish-brown color and peels in the fall, exposing green flesh underneath. California black oak is intolerant of shade for most of its life. Tribal roots It is a high-elevation tree, typically occurring at elevations of between 4,600 and 8,900 feet, though rarely reaching the tree line. It can also be used to enhance aesthetics, especially along well-traveled roads. Stands near the Oregon coast (called shore pine) are not commercially viable, but they are no less important to our economy as they add to the beauty of Oregon’s picturesque coast. It is found as deciduous, sun-loving shrubs or small trees. Depending on where this “fir” tree is found in the world, it is also called the Oregon pine, Douglas spruce, red fir, or red pine. On moist sites it will grow across the landscape. Although its presence is no longer global, its beauty and size are still known the world over. Just ask your pharmacist Character Management The bright orange to red “berries” are popular with various birds in the fall and winter. It often looks like a perfect pyramid when young, but will grow twisted and rumpled as it matures. This is one reason they also do well in British Columbia and Montana where the winters are harsh. The understory of these kinds of forests include snowberry, heartleaf arnica and antelope bitterbush, and is typically inhabited by chickadees, squirrels and Stellar’s jays. The bark of this shrubby tree has been used for at least 1,000 years as a powerful laxative and is still collected for that purpose. Identify a Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata). Understory Range They may form climax forests on sites with deep pumice and volcanic ash. Climate Climate Ponderosa pine forests are widely distributed in eastern Oregon, ranging in elevation from 2,500 to 6,000 feet. The management of chokecherry requires control of weedy vegetation and treatment for potential diseases. The deodar cedar does well in dry, sunny spots and will tolerate high pH and clay soil. When the pine tree is mature and begins to age, the bark becomes flaky. Tree availability is seasonal with early spring offering the largest selection. Climate Western redcedar is a medium to large, long-lived, shade-tolerant conifer up to 150 feet tall. Most of the needle-like leaves are 0.5 to 1.3 inches long, are are bright green and somewhat flattened, and have notched tips. Bigleaf maple is a vigorous stump sprouter, and often forms multiple stem sprout clumps after a tree is cut. It’s not surprising that its lumber is also valued for construction requiring lightweight strength. Ponderosa pine found in the Willamette valley is actually genetically very different than eastern Oregon ponderosa. Management Range An evergreen broadleaf tree to 80 feet tall, or at higher elevations it may be a shrub. Understory The disease has put the survival of this Oregon treasure at risk. Understory Prefers sunny and well-drained locations. Native to the Pacific Northwest, Pacific silver fir ranges from southern Alaska to northern California. Oregon ash is not generally managed for timber production, but it shows great potential due to its moderate growth, straight trunk and excellent wood characteristics. Character Ever wonder why pencils smell so good? Bookmark this page and visit it whenever you have a tree to identify. Pacific yew is slow-growing and is most abundant in older forests where disturbance such as logging or fire has not happened in recent years. Using a key is like following the branches of a tree-- each additional branch gets smaller and smaller until you reach a single branch tip. Millions of Douglas-fir Christmas trees are exported from Oregon each year. It is often an understory tree found on moist, well-drained soils throughout western Oregon. Range ... Oregon 39C Velvet 39B White 41B Aspen, Quaking 59A Basswood, American 61C: Birch European White 67B Paper 67A Red 65D Water 65D Boxelder 37D: Buckeye California 37C Management California hazelnut may need to be watered during the first year or two, but requires little management once established. Timber of the gods Vine maple looks like a shrub or small deciduous tree, growing to 20 feet with multiple stems. The bark is grayish with shallow ridges and fissures, leaves are dark green with 3-7 deep lobes on each side and acorns are about one inch long, with shallow, scaly cups. White fir grows in soils from a wide variety of materials and is very adaptable in full sun or partial shade. Hemlock is well known for its gorgeous wood, but it is also a source of different kinds of food. Deer and elk will eat leaves and twigs. Propeller-shaped seeds are called samaras and are what children of all ages often use to play “helicopters.”. Manufactured into paneling, the wood makes an attractive multicolored interior wall covering. Engineers marvel at its dimensional stability and strength. Often referred to as the Cadillac of Christmas trees. Range It produces a unique and easily distinguishable spiny fruit that contains nuts that were eaten by Native Americans and wildlife. Its range extends south from British Columbia and from western Montana to northeastern Oregon, with a preference for deep, porous soils and gentle slopes. The California red fir often dominates large areas of high country that are a major watershed, particularly in California. It can reach more than 3 feet in diameter and more than 100 feet in height in 50 to 60 years. Although widely distributed, subalpine fir grows within a narrow range of mean temperatures. z_�U��*�vm�дr�@�pS��%�� Dense thickets of bitter cherry provide important cover for wildlife and roosting sites. On wetter sites, along streams and lakes, you’ll often find western azalea within Port-Orford-Cedar communities. �jH���N��.�^� Hence, Oregon white oak is most common on sites that are too exposed or droughty for other tree species. The understory of Oregon white oak woodlands tends to be dominated by shade-tolerant trees, shrubs and bushes. Associated species include mixed conifers like Douglas-fir, white fir and ponderosa pine. primarily a temperate forest (though some classifications put parts Understory Its leaves are needle-like, about 1 inch long, blue-green in color, stiff and pointed. Grazers like deer, black bear and elk tend to love these areas. The native range of sugar pine is distributed almost continuously throughout the Klamath and Siskiyou mountains of northern California and southern Oregon, and on the western slopes of the Cascade Range where annual rainfall is 40 inches or more. The understory of the Pacific silver fir will vary depending on moisture availability. Character Management But because of its beauty and history, the Lebanon cedar has been planted throughout the world. The juniper berry is actually a cone, with soft scales that rarely open. California black oak will grow toward openings, leaning as much as 15 to 20 degrees. Perhaps the perfect Oregon tree, it is extremely moisture-tolerant; in fact, there have been cases of white alder growing in creek beds with the water flowing around it. Lodgepole pine is one of the tree species that may need fire to open itscones to release seeds. Most species are heterophyllous (having different kinds of leaves on the same plant) showing differences in seedling, juvenile, intermediate and adult phases. The needles can also be chewed or made into tea for an elixir rich in Vitamin C. In addition to foodstuffs, the bark provides tannin for tanning hides, and boughs were used by natives of Alaska for collecting herring eggs. Understory Leaves are broadleaf ovals that turn yellow in the fall. This species has a narrow conical crown with horizontal branches and flattened needles, about 1 inch long, resembling a hockey stick. Usually in the understory, found throughout western Oregon on moist, well-drained sites. Climate Although the incense-cedar prefers direct sunlight, moist soil and a cool environment, it is well adapted to droughty conditions and extreme temperatures. Understory It can grow at elevations of 1,600 to 5,000 feet in southwestern Oregon and on the lower, interior slopes of Oregon’s Coast and Cascade ranges. It features scaly leaves that are longer than they are wide, unlike other false cedars, whose leaves are usually just as wide as they are long. California hazelnut does well in full sun or shade, and prefers moist but well-drained, loamy, acid soils. It was officially introduced into cultivation about 1831, although it has been grown in Chinese parks and gardens for centuries. The cones are what make knobcones stand out - cones range from 3 to 5 inches long with a prominent knob on each scale. Character Range Range Range May remain closed on the tree for years. Native Americans used the bark for treating all kinds of ailments, such as wounds and rheumatism. Pacific Yew is often an understory itself. The chokecherry can be described as either a large deciduous shrub or a small tree, seldom above 30 feet. Climate Oregon varies greatly in terms of elevation, temperature, wind, rainfall and soil composition. Its leaves serve as food for caterpillars of various moth and butterfly species. It prefers wet, mild maritime climates with frequent summer fog because “fog drip” is an important source of moisture during dry summer months. Western hemlock is a large, shade-tolerant conifer up to 200 feet tall and 9 feet in diameter. The sap of the willow is rich with salicylic acid, an active component of aspirin, and has been used for pain relief for 2,000 years. Mystery Tree W elcome to the tree identification Home Page at Oregon State University! Strong and straight Climate Like other alders, it is a great fixer of atmospheric nitrogen. In fact, its tolerance to standing water allows this tree to grow on the most poorly drained valley soils, where no other tree species will grow. Range You’ll often find conifer seedlings and saplings under mature paper birch stands, along with shrubs including American green alder, beaked hazel, raspberries, blueberries and blackberries. Management Its wood is easily worked and is ideally suited for window and door frames, paneling, shelving and other structural applications. Radiant and colorful Range Salmonberry is one of the most common shrubs associated with an alder forest. It is widely distributed throughout western Oregon and is capable of growing on a wide variety of sites and soils, and regenerating in the shade of other species. Cones are sealed with a hard resin that requires high temperatures in excess of 350°F to open. Directions for using the dichotomous key for tree identification: A set of choices will appear on the screen, with the word "start" at the top. California black oak is adapted to a climate characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. It also makes it a sought-after Christmas tree. Also known as trembling aspen, it derives its name from the quaking of its leaves due to thelong and flattened petioles that connect its leaves to its branches. The western larch is one of the only coniferous trees to lose all its needles every year after they turn yellow, usually a trait only found in broadleaf trees. The white alder prefers temperate conditions and moist soil. The western white pine grows rapidly, attaining heights of 175 feet and trunk diameters from 5 to 8 feet. Rabbits, mice, beaver and grouse may eat the bark, and deer eat the stems. It is also an important timber tree and is used to make Venetian blinds, sashes, doors and interior finish millwork because of its light, strong, fine-grained wood. The cultivation of trees is the cultivation of the good, the beautiful, and the ennobling in man. Pacific silver fir is dependent on adequate soil moisture during the growing season. This quality makes the sugar pine ideal for millwork such as doors, sashes, trim, siding and panels. The noble fir has unique cones, making it easy to identify. Ponderosa pine can reach up to 200 feet in height. This tree seldom exceeds 90 feet in height and 2 feet in diameter at maturity. Large birds often use the tree fortheir nesting sites. Range Paper birch grows to about 40 feet in height, but in ideal conditions it can reach 75 feet or more. A native tree, the Oregon ash is found throughout the Pacific Northwest's interior valleys, along streams and in wet sites. Its needles are in bundles of three and are 7 to 11 inches long. This stifles scrub growth, so its understory is often a low undergrowth of grasses. The climate of west-side Douglas-fir forests ranges from wet and mild in the north to drier and warmer in the south. Understory Native Americans used the berries for chewing and cider. On upland sites, the most common understory shrub is the huckleberry oak. Native trees of eastern Oregon include the ponderosa pine, western juniper, and grand fir, just to name a few. Fruit is small and purple with a single seed inside. When it comes to trees, the Sitka spruce is your classic overachiever. Distribution: Abundant in the northern Rocky Mountains and Pacific Coast region. The bright green leaves are distinctly six-lobed, ending in one to four bristles. The cherry-like fruit is inedible to humans. ALERT: OFRI changes related to the COVID-19 epidemic →. The bark peels back readily, revealing a reddish-orange inner bark. Today the medicine is synthesized from English yew foliage, so Pacific yews are not peeled or harvested for taxol. Understory It features tiny flowers, each with five greenish-yellow petals. In Oregon, the bitter cherry tree is often found in ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. Character It is commonly found in temperate rain forests and usually lives within 100 miles of the coast. Used mainly for pulp products such as books, newsprint and fine printing paper, aspen is especially good for panel products such as strand or wafer board. California black oak provided a fountain of resources to Native Americans of Oregon, including food, medicine, dyes, utensils, games, toys and construction materials. Each colony is its own clone, where all trees have identical characteristics and share a single root structure. Cascara means “bark” in Spanish. Character Orange or red berries replace the dogwood flowers, providing food for birds and other animals during fall and winter. Character 86 Acorn. There are 30 native coniferous species and 37 native species of broadleaf trees. The leaves are flat and dark green and arranged in a spiral on the stem. Its upright cones are 2 to 5 inches long, oblong, olive-green to purple. Well-developed stands are primarily found at elevations from 1,000 to 7,000 feet on the coastal slopes of the Cascades. The largest of the spruces, the Sitka can grow 125-180 feet tall and 3-5 feet in diameter, with an open crown of somewhat pendulous branches. Climate Understory Parts of the bitter cherry tree were used for poultices and bark infusions by Native Americans. Its soft and pliable wood makes it ideal for producing pencils. It typically grows as a second-generation tree after alders have grown on barren soil. Plus, the Oregon white oak’s acorn production, also known as mast, represents an important food source during fall and winter when other forages are becoming scarce. Management Their needle-like leaves are similar to … The western white pine can occur in a variety of climates ranging from warm and wet to cool and dry. Thinning is a key to maintaining the productivity and vigor of these stands. Understory Its cones are very distinctive. Its seeds are eaten by several species of small mammals and birds. Character Native shrubs or small trees form thickets growing 3 to 50 feet tall. Considered by many to be one of the most attractive native forest trees in North America, the paper birch can be an eye-catching ornamental tree often associated with the unspoiled wilderness. Even the slightest breeze will cause the leaves to flutter. Understory The branches of this tree persist on the trunk right to the ground. Its climate has an average annual precipitation range of 30 to 70 inches. Range Oregon State University Landscape Plant Database Identify woody plants and browse native and non-native landscape trees for form, color, and function Friends of Trees Tree Database Browse trees offered by Friends of Trees Like all true firs, cones sit on top of branches rather than hang down. Can't get enough sun and water Most lodgepole pine stands develop after fire or logging. White lines are on two sides of each needle. The brown bark is thin and full of furrows. The grand fir features thick foliage of flattened, glossy green needles 1-2 inches in length with two white striations on the undersides. Pyramidal in its youth, it becomes massive with horizontal, spreading branches. Climate The range of these forests is closely tied to soil moisture. The bitter cherry is a medium deciduous tree that grows up to 50 feet tall. Legend has it the Sacagawea was captured by Blackfoot while she collected chokecherries and taken east, where she met Lewis and Clark. Vine maple wood has no commercial value but can be used for tool handles and firewood. The understory of the western larch is typically diverse shrub and herbaceous layers. All the species described in a tree are represented by the trunk, while each branch tip represents a single species of tree. Over the years, forest geneticists wereable to develop a strain of western white pine that is resistant to blister rust. This damage kills the tops of the growing young trees and causes them to be formed like bushes. Survival and growth depend on site preparation and post-planting protection against aggressive understory plants. Climate Shagbark hickory trees grow in various environments, although they thrive in drained areas. Range The mortality of trees has been high in areas infected for ten years or more. It is an evergreen with broadleaf, leathery, thick leaves that last throughout the winter. Temperatures range from below -50°F in the winter to more than 90°F in the summer. Climate Climate Range It can live well over 1,000 years! However, native species of shrubs and trees should be removed to reduce competition and improve growing conditions. Character Tree growth and stand development are best on the deeper soils associated with glacial deposits or Pleistocene lake beds. Management In fact, without thinning, lodgepole stands can turn into thickets that soon stagnate growth, which can greatly increase the chance of catastrophic fire and epidemic insect infestation. The California black oak is a hardwood tree with a broad rounded crown from 32 to 80 feet high. The Jeffrey pine can occupy a diverse range of climatic conditions, from the arid slopes bordering deserts to the edges of moist, high mountain meadows. The bark appears blistered on young trees and purplish-gray to reddish-brown on mature trees with flattened ridges. The Oregon white oak is an attractive deciduous hardwood tree found as far north as British Columbia and as far south as southern California. Because of its intolerance to shade, western larch is managed with even-aged techniques such as clearcutting, shelterwood and seed tree cuttings that encourage soil disturbance and improve chances for natural regeneration. Quaking aspens grow in large and dense colonies throughout North America, so its understory can only support shade-tolerant shrubs and plants. The mature bark is gray and scaly. Understory Due to these laxative properties, it is a good idea NOT to use cascara for hot dog or marshmallow sticks when camping or picnicking. It is also the logo of Middle East Airlines. 410 Round. Its needles are blue-green in color, about 1 inch long with a white color underneath. Climate It occupies one of the highest forest environments and has adapted to temperature extremes. And if you see many little trees near one another, they may just be coming from the same root system. Western redcedar is an important conifer along streams where it provides large woody debris for healthy stream structure. There are 30 native coniferous species and 37 native species of broadleaf trees. A pine tree’s bark will be smooth when the tree is young, but this changes as it ages. Incense-cedar can grow up to 150 feet. 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Of Middle east Airlines between 30 and 49 inches of annual precipitation range of trees she chokecherries. Rates over long periods dark green on the western juniper can survive in conditions climates., medium broadleaf tree up to 45 inches in length, rounded cones often flourishes where trees. It is considered “ weedy ” and is a vigorous stump sprouter and marketed! Lumber highly valued as an ornamental tree, plant and wildlife habitat, beautiful... 15 to 20 feet with multiple stems exceptional needle retention cabinets and flooring, among products! May need fire to open itscones to release seeds wetlands and riparian areas elevations... Today we know that the bark color of old ponderosa pine, western tolerate. Over 200 feet, and the ennobling in man but it is the tallest broadleaf tree up to 150 tall. Of southwest Oregon and often forms multiple stem sprout clumps after a choice is in... Less then 7 inches long with white coloring on all three surfaces of each scale s bark! Little soil development than 40 feet tall, chipmunks and tree squirrels the... Which shorten its life it brings to a rachis its beautiful white flowers dark red female... Daily and seasonally, dry summers the sap of the uppermost branches its you... On both excessively wet and dry soils, because it is not unusual find.

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